Developmental psychology includes issues such as the extent to which development occurs through the gradual accumulation of knowledge versus stage-like development, or the extent to which children are born with innate mental structures versus learning through experience. Many researchers are interested in the interaction between personal characteristics, the individual’s behavior, and environmental factors including social context, and their impact on development; others take a more narrowly focused approach.
Developmental psychology informs several applied fields, including: educational psychology, child psychopathology, and forensic developmental psychology. Developmental psychology complements several other basic research fields in psychology including social psychology, cognitive psychology, ecological psychology, and comparative psychology.
The branch of psychology that studies the facts and law like regularities of the psychological development of children and shares a number of problems with educational psychology.
Child psychology is closely connected with pedagogy, as well as with age morphology and physiology in particular, the physiology of the higher nervous activity of children. The study of the origin and development of psychological processes in ontogenesis casts light on the nature of these processes, facilitating the solution of problems in general psychology, as well as certain philosophical problems. According to V. I. Lenin, the history of the mental development of children was one of the areas of knowledge on whose basis the materialist dialectic and the theory of cognition should be built. Research in child psychology is important to pedagogical work, because knowledge of the conditions and law like regularities of the psychological development of children is necessary for the conscious direction of the educational process. Studies of the various forms of irregular development of the psyche are very important for defect ology as well as for child psychiatry.
The object of child psychology is the study of the conditions and moving causes behind the ontogenesis of the human psyche, the development of the various psychological processes (cognitive, volitional, and emotional) and different types of activity (play, work, and study), the formation of personality traits, and the age and individual psychological characteristics of children.
Family problems represent a unique, but common, category of adjustment difficulty that causes people to seek psychological treatment. Problems can develop in a couple relationships because of a medical or psychological problem in either person, or in one of their children. Parent-child problems can also create distress within a family. Poor communication and discipline problems are very common. Sometimes there are constant battles between siblings, and the parents cannot seem to resolve the conflicts. Divorce, and the creation of stepfamilies, can create difficulties in a family, sometimes for all members of the family. Sometimes the couple relationship itself is the problem, with poor communication, constant conflict, lack of closeness, sexual problems, or in-law problems all to be considered possible concerns.
These problems can lead to the development of adjustment problems in one or more members of the family. But, because the family relationships are a part of the problem, it is necessary to change the structure of the family relationships. Dr. Franklin provides couple and family therapy to address these issues, as well as helping parents with the development of parenting skills.
Sometimes there are multiple problems, with depression in one family member, plus marital conflict. Several treatment approaches may be necessary in these circumstances, depending on the nature of the problems and the willingness of family members to participate in treatment. Generally, a psychologist will not provide individual psychotherapy to one member of the family, and see the whole family for family therapy or the couple for couple therapy at the same time. However, sometimes family therapy for child behavior problems includes individual sessions with the parents, designed to help with parenting skills, not to do individual therapy or marital therapy. It is possible to provide individual psychotherapy to two family members, but sometimes this creates a problem, and psychologists always have to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach.
All psychologists do not provide couple therapy and family therapy, but those that do, such as Dr. Franklin, often have received specialized training in family systems theory, and in family and couple therapy skills. When you contact a psychologist for family therapy, do not hesitate to ask about his/her family therapy training.
Many a time physical appearance is considered important in selecting a partner. Often we come across partners reject a probable one just because he/she is not good looking, leave alone beautiful. There are instances of divorce after the marriage just because wife is not beautiful. The reason outlined may not be exactly the same, but some pretext or other this is the main reason. It all happens because of psychological thinking of one’s own mind. While physical appearance is usually considered first, but what matters to a great extent in marriage is one’s personality.
Then what is personality in relation to selecting a partner in a marriage is our next psychological worry. Personality is nothing but one’s inner qualities. Personality includes interests, values, thoughts, attitudes, behavior and other fine qualities. Personality exploration is most important in selecting a partner.
Interests vary from person to person. Here mutual interest is important for a healthy married life. One should respect other person’s interest. Otherwise problems arise among the partners later on in their life. Objective interest rather than subjective interest is welcome.
Value of human beings is considered utmost important values of partners are to be respected. Values determine the qualities of partners in a society. We should give value to the partner values. No two thoughts are equal. Partners will have different thoughts at different times. One should understand this psychological aspect in selecting a partner. One cannot force thoughts on another. It is an individual’s freedom to have different thoughts. But like minded partners may have similar or near similar thoughts. Good thoughts make them happy in relationships with each other. Harmony in relationship is appreciated by having similar thoughts.
As such these psychological factors play important roles in selection of partners, marital happiness and helpful for future generation as well.
Old Age Psychology
Worldwide, the number of people 65 or older is increasing faster than ever before. Most of this increase is occurring in developing countries. In the United States the percentage of people 65 or older increased from 4 percent in 1900 to about 13 percent in the late 1990s. In 1900, only about 3 million of the nation & request people had reached 65. By 1998, the number of senior citizens had increased to about 34 million. Population experts estimate that more than 50 million Americans--about 17 percent of the population--will be 65 or older in 2020. The number of elderly people is growing around the world chiefly because more children reach adulthood. In most parts of the world, women live, on average, longer than men. In the United States in the late 1990s, life expectancy at birth was 80 years for women and 73 years for men. American women who were age 65 in the late 1990s could expect to live about 19 additional years. Men who were 65 could expect to live about 16 additional years.
In Western societies, everybody declared to be “old” when they reach the ages of 65-70, and secure their pension entitlement. Some governments offer old age pensions, and redeemable retirement savings plans. Retirement is a typical lifestyle embraced by advanced adults, marking the end of a lifetime of work.
Pension’s provision relied upon life expectancy at retirement being short: This change has led to the pension’s crisis. Some believe there to be prejudice against older people in Western cultures, referred to as ageism.
“The increase of senior citizens around the world (especially in more economically developed countries) could soon be considered as a problem. The fact is, with the number of elderly people increasing, there will be a greater need for people to care for them. This costs money, and its coming from the taxes we all pay. If the amount of senior citizens keeps increasing at the going rate, there is a high chance that taxes will increase so we can support them” reports a government official who did not want to give his name.